Transitive and Intransitive Verbs: Spot the Difference

Got Zombie? by April McGuire
Before you say anything, yes, I know. I’ve been a bad blogger. It’s been nearly two weeks since my last post. But I have a really good excuse. In addition to being swamped with editing work, I was also putting together the first issue of The Ghouls’ Review for my other, other job over at Grammar Ghoul Press. If you have some time, you should check out the magazine. There are some really awesome writers featured in the issue. Continue reading

Writing Kick Ass Sentences

SaffronSentences are the backbone of communication. They allow us to express thoughts and ideas in a way that is easy to understand. So, what exactly is a sentence? Today, we’re going to look at the key elements all sentences require, as well as some things you can do to ensure your sentences are the very best they can be.

The Essentials

First of all, a sentence should always contain a complete thought. And, in order for a sentence to truly be a sentence, it must also contain a subject and a predicate.

The Subject


Example Sentence: Fred, the fragrant foodie, stopped to smell the spicy saffron.

The subject is the heart of a sentence; it tells us who or what is performing the action or being described. The subject will always include a noun or pronoun (e.g., Fred), but it can also include the modifiers (e.g., Fred, the fragrant foodie).

An easy way to determine the subject is to isolate the verb and put who or what before it.

A Side Note about Imperative Sentences

When we use the imperative, the subject is always you, but it is not typically expressed (e.g., Stop right there!).

The Predicate

So if the subject is the heart of a sentence, then the predicate is the lungs. It describes the subject or tells us what the subject is doing. The predicate will always include a verb (e.g., stopped), but it can also include objects, complements, and other phrases (e.g., stopped to smell the spicy saffron).

An easy way to determine the predicate in a sentence is to ask: What did/does the subject do?

Objects

Example Sentence: Flora gave Fred a bountiful basket of fresh fruit.

In English grammar, there are two types of objects: direct and indirect. A direct object points to the person or thing affected by the verb’s action. You can usually figure out the direct object by isolating the verb and putting whom or what after it (gave what? a bountiful basket).

An indirect object points to the person or thing that receives the direct object. You can usually figure out the indirect object by isolating the verb and putting to whom or to what after it (gave to whom? Fred).

Complements

Example Sentence: The chef who cooked this fine meal was Fred’s first protégé.

In English grammar, a complement refers to something that completes, and there are two kinds: subject complements and object complements. A subject complement gives us details that complete our understanding of the subject. Normally, it will be a noun, pronoun, or adjective that follows a linking verb.

So, in the example sentence, Fred’s first protégé is the subject complement because it completes our understanding of the chef, and follows the linking verb, was.

Similarly, an object complement gives us information that completes our understanding of the object. In the above sentence, the direct object is meal and the object complement is fine.

Crafting Sentences

Now that we’ve covered the basics of what makes a sentence, let’s look at how to craft sentences that kick ass.

  1. Be concise.

    Express your idea or thought in simple, straightforward language. Be direct. Don’t use run-on sentences.

  2. Be clear.

    Choose your words carefully and structure your sentences so they are easy to follow.

  3. Reduce redundancy.

    Instead of saying things like true fact or free gift or 12 midnight, say fact or gift or midnight. Same goes for modifiers. Instead of describing someone as stubborn and obstinate, pick one.

  4. Eliminate clichés and wordiness.

    Adding unnecessary jargon can make sentences long and difficult to understand. And adding clichés can make your whole paragraph sound clichéd.

  5. Test your sentence.

    Is it easy to determine the subject and the predicate? What about objects and complements? If you read your sentence out loud, does it make sense? Does it clearly express the idea or thought it’s supposed to?

For more detailed tips, check out Writing Concise Sentences in the Capital Community College Foundation’s Guide to Grammar and Writing.

This article was originally written as part of the 2014 yeah write summer series.


Image credit: robynmac @ PhotoXpress.com

Sentence Autopsy: Part 2

blog-stargateWelcome back! I’m all rested up and ready to continue with Part Two of my Sentence Autopsy. Today we’re probing the pancreas and the gallbladder of sentences – also known as objects and complements.

Objects
There are two types of objects in English – a direct object and an indirect object. The direct object points to the person or thing that is affected by the verb’s action and can usually be determined by isolating the verb and asking the question “whom?” or “what?” after it.

  • It looked like a Goa’uld ship had crashed on the planet.
    Q: looked like what? A: a Goa’uld ship. So direct object = Goa’uld ship.

The indirect object points us to the person or thing that receives the direct object. It can determined by isolating the verb and asking the question “to whom?” or “to what?” or “for whom?” after it.

  • Colonel Carter tossed Teal’c a piece of the alien spacecraft.
    Q: tossed to whom? A: Teal’c. So indirect object = Teal’c.

Complements
Complement refers to something that completes. In English, there are two types of grammatical complements – subject complements and object complements. A subject complement provides detail about the subject that completes our understanding. Typically, it is a noun, pronoun or adjective, and it will follow a linking verb.

  • The Egyptologist that cracked the code was Dr. Jackson.
    The linking verb was points to the subject complement, Dr. Jackson (which completes our understanding of the subject, Egyptologist).

Similarly, an object complement gives us information to complete our understanding of the object.

  • After all the kerfuffle, O’Neill couldn’t believe the Stargate worked.
    In this sentence, Stargate is the direct object, and worked completes our understanding of it, making it the object complement.

And there you have it – our autopsy is complete! So whether you’re writing your dissertation, an email or your conspiracy theory manifesto, you now have all the tools to write beautifully structured sentences.

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